fsbc-20240129
0001275168FALSE00012751682024-01-292024-01-29

  
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549 
 
FORM 8-K
 
CURRENT REPORT
Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the
Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Date of report (Date of earliest event reported): January 29, 2024
 
FIVE STAR BANCORP
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter) 
 
  
    
California 001-40379 75-3100966
(State or Other Jurisdiction
of Incorporation)
 
(Commission
File Number)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
  

3100 Zinfandel Drive, Suite 100, Rancho Cordova, California, 95670
(Address of Principal Executive Offices, and Zip Code)

(916) 626-5000
Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code

Not Applicable
(Former Name or Former Address, if Changed Since Last Report) 
 
Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions (see General Instruction A.2. below):
 
 Written communication pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)
 
 Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)
 
 Pre-commencement communication pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))
 
 Pre-commencement communication pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, no par value per shareFSBCThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (17 CFR §230.405) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (17 CFR §240.12b-2). Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.



Item 2.02    Results of Operations and Financial Condition

On January 29, 2024, Five Star Bancorp (the “Company”) issued a press release announcing its results of operations and financial condition for the quarter and year ended December 31, 2023. A copy of the press release is attached to this Current Report on Form 8-K as Exhibit 99.1 and is incorporated herein by reference.

This information (including Exhibit 99.1) is being furnished under Item 2.02 hereof and shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), or otherwise subject to the liabilities of that section, and such information shall not be deemed incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), or the Exchange Act, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.

Item 7.01    Regulation FD Disclosure

The Company is conducting an earnings call on January 30, 2024 at 10:00am PT/1:00pm ET to discuss its fourth quarter and year end 2023 financial results. A copy of the investor presentation to be used during the earnings call is attached to this Current Report on Form 8-K as Exhibit 99.2 and is incorporated herein by reference.

This information (including Exhibit 99.2) is being furnished under Item 7.01 hereof and shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities of that section, and such information shall not be deemed incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act, or the Exchange Act, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.

Item 9.01    Financial Statements and Exhibits
(d) Exhibits

Number
Description
99.1

99.2
104Cover Page Interactive Data File (embedded within the Inline XBRL)





SIGNATURE
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.
 FIVE STAR BANCORP
  
 By:/s/ Heather Luck
  Name: Heather Luck
  Title: Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
  
 Date: January 29, 2024


Document

https://cdn.kscope.io/5f7b961a11a9562919e6af46164e5169-fivestarbancorplogo.jpg
 
PRESS RELEASEFOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
 
Five Star Bancorp Announces Quarterly and Annual Results
RANCHO CORDOVA, Calif. January 29, 2024 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) – Five Star Bancorp (Nasdaq: FSBC) (the “Company” or “Five Star”), the holding company for Five Star Bank, today reported net income of $10.8 million for the three months ended December 31, 2023, as compared to $11.0 million for the three months ended September 30, 2023 and $13.3 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022. Net income for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $47.7 million, as compared to $44.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2022.
Financial Highlights
Performance highlights and other developments for the Company for the periods noted below included the following:
 Three months ended
(in thousands, except per share and share data)
December 31, 2023 September 30, 2023 December 31, 2022
Return on average assets (“ROAA”)1.26 %1.30 %1.70 %
Return on average equity (“ROAE”)15.45 %16.09 %21.50 %
Pre-tax income$15,151 $15,795 $18,769 
Pre-tax, pre-provision income(1)
$15,951 $16,845 $20,019 
Net income$10,799 $11,045 $13,282 
Basic earnings per common share$0.63 $0.64 $0.77 
Diluted earnings per common share$0.63 $0.64 $0.77 
Weighted average basic common shares outstanding17,175,445 17,175,034 17,143,920 
Weighted average diluted common shares outstanding17,193,114 17,194,825 17,179,863 
Shares outstanding at end of period17,256,989 17,257,357 17,241,926 
 Year ended
(in thousands, except per share and share data)
December 31, 2023 December 31, 2022
Return on average assets (“ROAA”)1.44 %1.57 %
Return on average equity (“ROAE”)17.85 %18.80 %
Pre-tax income
$66,616 $62,858 
Pre-tax, pre-provision income(1)
$70,616 $69,558 
Net income$47,734 $44,801 
Basic earnings per common share$2.78 $2.61 
Diluted earnings per common share$2.78 $2.61 
Weighted average basic common shares outstanding17,166,592 17,128,282 
Weighted average diluted common shares outstanding17,187,969 17,165,610 
Shares outstanding at end of period17,256,989 17,241,926 
(1) See the section entitled “Non-GAAP Reconciliation (Unaudited)” for a reconciliation of this non-GAAP financial measure.
1


James E. Beckwith, President and Chief Executive Officer, commented on the financial results:
“Five Star Bank is known for turning market disruption into opportunity and 2023 was no exception. While many faced significant headwinds in Q1 due to big bank failures, we seized the opportunity to execute on our organic growth strategy by expanding into the San Francisco Bay Area. This expansion included the onboarding of eight seasoned and highly respected business development officers and two relationship managers who contributed $73.8 million of deposit growth in 2023 from clients who wanted to work with a bank they could trust. The past year demonstrated the importance of being prepared for any market condition and we are pleased with our immediate response to serving new clients in the Bay Area while also ensuring the safety and soundness of our business.
Margin pressures remained in Q4, yet slowed compared to prior quarters. We expect positive news from the Federal Reserve in 2024 to result in an end to the rising rate environment and signal potential rate cuts. As we look to 2024, we anticipate a benefit from these rate cuts as we have a slightly liability sensitive balance sheet. In the meantime, we will continue to grow organically by focusing on deposit growth in our core geographical markets, including the Sacramento Capital Region, North State, and San Francisco Bay Area. We will also manage expenses and execute on conservative underwriting practices which are foundational to our success.
In 2023, we received a Super Premier Performer rating from Findley Reports, an IDC Superior Rating, and a Bauer Financial Superior rating (5 stars out of 5). We were also awarded the prestigious 2022 Raymond James Community Bankers Cup, and were among the 2023 Piper Sandler Sm-All Stars. In 2023, we were recognized as the 2022 S&P Global Market Intelligence #1 Best-Performing Community Bank in the nation (banks with assets between $3 billion and $10 billion). We were also listed in Independent Banker’s Top Commercial Banks in 2023 (banks with more than $1 billion in assets) and ranked #6 in the nation. We were listed among American Banker’s Top-Performing Banks in 2023 (banks with $2 billion to $10 billion in assets) and ranked #12 in the nation. In 2023, our executives and senior leaders were awarded a Sacramento Business Journal C-Suite Award, a Sacramento Bee Latino Changemakers Award, a Commercial Real Estate Women Award, and a Comstock’s Magazine Women in Leadership Award. Being recognized as community leaders ensures Five Star Bank remains top-of-mind in the markets we serve as we continue to build-out our verticals. In closing, we are well-positioned to continue to withstand an array of economic conditions as we enter 2024. I am humbled and proud of our team’s accomplishments as we look to the future.”
The Company’s new San Francisco Bay Area team increased to 10 employees who generated deposit balances totaling $73.8 million at December 31, 2023, an increase of $44.8 million from September 30, 2023.
Cash and cash equivalents were $321.6 million, representing 10.62% of total deposits at December 31, 2023, compared to 10.67% at September 30, 2023.
Total deposits decreased by $5.3 million, or 0.18%, during the three months ended December 31, 2023. Non-brokered deposits decreased by $30.4 million, or 1.03%, over the same period.
Consistent, disciplined management of expenses contributed to our efficiency ratio of 44.25% for the three months ended December 31, 2023.
For the three months ended December 31, 2023, net interest margin was 3.19%, as compared to 3.31% for the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 3.83% for the three months ended December 31, 2022. For the year ended December 31, 2023, net interest margin was 3.42%, as compared to 3.75% for the year ended December 31, 2022. The effective Federal Funds rate remained at 5.33% as of December 31, 2023, and September 30, 2023 and increased from 4.33% as of December 31, 2022.
Other comprehensive income was $4.2 million during the three months ended December 31, 2023. Unrealized losses, net of tax effect, on available-for-sale securities were $11.8 million as of December 31, 2023. Total held-to-maturity and available-for-sale securities represented 0.09% and 3.08% of total interest-earning assets, respectively, as of December 31, 2023.
The Company’s common equity Tier 1 capital ratio was 9.07% as of both December 31, 2023 and September 30, 2023. The Bank continues to meet all requirements to be considered “well-capitalized” under applicable regulatory guidelines.
2


Loan and deposit growth was as follows at the dates indicated:
(in thousands)
December 31, 2023 September 30, 2023 $ Change % Change
Loans held for investment
$3,081,719  $3,009,930  $71,789  2.39 %
Non-interest-bearing deposits
831,101  833,434  (2,333) (0.28)%
Interest-bearing deposits
2,195,795  2,198,776  (2,981) (0.14)%
 
       
(in thousands)December 31, 2023 December 31, 2022 $ Change % Change
Loans held for investment$3,081,719 $2,791,326  $290,393 10.40 %
Non-interest-bearing deposits831,101 971,246  (140,145)(14.43)%
Interest-bearing deposits2,195,795 1,810,758  385,037 21.26 %
The ratio of nonperforming loans to loans held for investment at period end increased from 0.01% at December 31, 2022 to 0.06% at December 31, 2023.
The Company’s Board of Directors declared, and the Company subsequently paid, a cash dividend of $0.20 per share during the three months ended December 31, 2023. The Company’s Board of Directors declared another cash dividend of $0.20 per share on January 18, 2024, which the Company expects to pay on February 12, 2024 to shareholders of record as of February 5, 2024.
Summary Results
Three months ended December 31, 2023, as compared to three months ended September 30, 2023
The Company’s net income was $10.8 million for the three months ended December 31, 2023, compared to $11.0 million for the three months ended September 30, 2023. Net interest income decreased by $0.8 million as increases in interest expense exceeded increases in interest income. The provision for credit losses decreased by $0.3 million as expectations for credit losses improved based on positive economic trends in the three months ended December 31, 2023, compared to the three months ended September 30, 2023. Non-interest income increased by $0.6 million, primarily due to gains from distributions on investments in venture-backed funds and the recognition of swap referral and rate lock fees during the three months ended December 31, 2023 that did not occur during the three months ended September 30, 2023. Non-interest expense increased by $0.6 million, primarily due to increased salaries, employee benefits, advertising, promotional, and other operating expenses related to the Company’s expansion into the San Francisco Bay Area.
Three months ended December 31, 2023, as compared to three months ended December 31, 2022
The Company’s net income was $10.8 million for the three months ended December 31, 2023, compared to $13.3 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022. Net interest income decreased by $2.5 million as increases in interest expense exceeded increases in interest income. The provision for credit losses decreased by $0.5 million as loan originations in the three months ended December 31, 2023 were approximately half of those in the three months ended December 31, 2022. Non-interest income increased by $0.3 million, primarily due to greater gains from distributions on investments in venture-backed funds quarter-over-quarter and the recognition of swap referral and rate lock fees during three months ended December 31, 2023 that did not occur during the three months ended December 31, 2022. Non-interest expense increased by $1.9 million with an increase in salaries and employee benefits related to the Company’s expansion into the San Francisco Bay Area as the leading driver.
Year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to year ended December 31, 2022
The Company’s net income was $47.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $44.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. Net interest income increased by $7.8 million as increases in interest income exceeded increases in interest expense, with increases in the average balance of interest-earning assets as the leading driver. The provision for credit losses decreased by $2.7 million as loan originations in the year ended December 31, 2023 were approximately half of those for the year ended December 31, 2022. Non-interest income increased by $0.4 million, primarily due to greater gains from distributions on investments in venture-backed funds during the year ended December 31, 2023 than during the year ended December 31, 2022. Non-interest expense increased by $7.1 million with an increase in salaries and employee benefits related to the Company’s expansion into the San Francisco Bay Area as the leading driver.
3


The following is a summary of the components of the Company’s operating results and performance ratios for the periods indicated:
  Three months ended  
(in thousands, except per share data) December 31, 2023September 30, 2023 $ Change % Change
Selected operating data:        
Net interest income $26,678 $27,476  $(798)(2.90)%
Provision for credit losses 800  1,050  (250)(23.81)%
Non-interest income 1,936  1,384  552 39.88 %
Non-interest expense 12,663  12,015  648 5.39 %
Pre-tax income
 15,151  15,795  (644)(4.08)%
Provision for income taxes 4,352  4,750  (398)(8.38)%
Net income $10,799  $11,045  $(246)(2.23)%
Earnings per common share:        
Basic $0.63 $0.64  $(0.01)(1.56)%
Diluted $0.63 $0.64  $(0.01)(1.56)%
Performance and other financial ratios:        
ROAA 1.26 % 1.30 %    
ROAE 15.45 % 16.09 %    
Net interest margin 3.19 % 3.31 %    
Cost of funds 2.50 % 2.28 %    
Efficiency ratio44.25 %41.63 %
  Three months ended  
(in thousands, except per share data) December 31, 2023December 31, 2022 $ Change % Change
Selected operating data:        
Net interest income $26,678 $29,135  $(2,457)(8.43)%
Provision for credit losses 800 1,250  (450)(36.00)%
Non-interest income 1,936 1,601  335 20.92 %
Non-interest expense 12,663 10,717  1,946 18.16 %
Pre-tax income
 15,151 18,769  (3,618)(19.28)%
Provision for income taxes 4,352 5,487  (1,135)(20.69)%
Net income $10,799 $13,282  $(2,483)(18.69)%
Earnings per common share:     
Basic $0.63 $0.77  $(0.14)(18.18)%
Diluted $0.63 $0.77  $(0.14)(18.18)%
Performance and other financial ratios:     
ROAA 1.26 %1.70 %    
ROAE 15.45 %21.50 %    
Net interest margin 3.19 %3.83 %    
Cost of funds 2.50 %1.16 %    
Efficiency ratio44.25 %34.87 %
4


Year ended
(in thousands, except per share data)December 31, 2023December 31, 2022$ Change% Change
Selected operating data:
Net interest income$110,880 $103,070 $7,810 7.58 %
Provision for credit losses4,000 6,700 (2,700)(40.30)%
Non-interest income7,511 7,157 354 4.95 %
Non-interest expense47,775 40,669 7,106 17.47 %
Pre-tax income
66,616 62,858 3,758 5.98 %
Provision for income taxes18,882 18,057 825 4.57 %
Net income$47,734 $44,801 $2,933 6.55 %
Earnings per common share:
Basic$2.78 $2.61 $0.17 6.51 %
Diluted$2.78 $2.61 $0.17 6.51 %
Performance and other financial ratios:
ROAA1.44 %1.57 %
ROAE17.85 %18.80 %
Net interest margin3.42 %3.75 %
Cost of funds2.10 %0.57 %
Efficiency ratio40.35 %36.90 %
Balance Sheet Summary
(in thousands) December 31, 2023 December 31, 2022$ Change % Change
Selected financial condition data:        
Total assets $3,593,125  $3,227,159  $365,966  11.34 %
Cash and cash equivalents 321,576  259,991  61,585  23.69 %
Total loans held for investment 3,081,719  2,791,326  290,393  10.40 %
Total investments 111,160  119,744  (8,584) (7.17)%
Total liabilities 3,307,351  2,974,334  333,017  11.20 %
Total deposits 3,026,896  2,782,004  244,892  8.80 %
Subordinated notes, net 73,749  73,606  143  0.19 %
Total shareholders’ equity 285,774  252,825  32,949  13.03 %
Insured and collateralized deposits were approximately $2.0 billion, representing approximately 66.79% of total deposits as of December 31, 2023. Net uninsured and uncollateralized deposits were approximately $1.0 billion as of December 31, 2023.
Commercial and consumer deposit accounts constituted approximately 73% of total deposits. Deposit relationships of at least $5 million represented approximately 62% of total deposits and had an average age of approximately 8.78 years as of December 31, 2023.
Cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2023 were $321.6 million, representing 10.62% of total deposits at December 31, 2023, compared to 9.35% as of December 31, 2022.
In the first quarter of 2023, the Federal Reserve created the Bank Term Funding Program to provide depository institutions with additional funding, which allows any federally insured deposit institution to pledge its investment portfolio at par as collateral value. As of December 31, 2023, the Bank had neither used nor established borrowing capacity with the Bank Term Funding Program.
5


Total liquidity (consisting of cash and cash equivalents and unused and immediately available borrowing capacity as set forth below) was approximately $1.4 billion as of December 31, 2023.
December 31, 2023Available
(in thousands)
Line of CreditLetters of Credit IssuedBorrowings
Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco (“FHLB”) advances
$996,712 $681,500 $170,000 $145,212 
Federal Reserve Discount Window770,572 — — 770,572 
Correspondent bank lines of credit175,000 — — 175,000 
Cash and cash equivalents— — — 321,576 
Total
$1,942,284 $681,500 $170,000 $1,412,360 
The increase in total assets from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2023 was primarily due to a $290.4 million increase in total loans held for investment and a $61.6 million increase in cash and cash equivalents, partially offset by a $8.6 million decrease in investments. The $290.4 million increase in total loans held for investment between December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2023 was the result of $668.2 million in loan originations, partially offset by $377.8 million in loan payoffs and paydowns.
The increase in total liabilities from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2023 was primarily attributable to an increase in deposits of $244.9 million and an increase in FHLB advances of $70.0 million. The $244.9 million increase in deposits was largely due to increases in money market, time deposits over $250 thousand, and interest-bearing demand deposits of $208.8 million, $146.5 million, and $80.2 million, respectively, partially offset by decreases in non-interest-bearing demand, savings, and other time deposits of $140.1 million, $28.1 million, and $22.5 million, respectively.
The increase in total shareholders’ equity from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2023 was primarily a result of net income recognized of $47.7 million and an increase of $1.7 million in accumulated other comprehensive income, partially offset by $12.9 million in cash distributions paid during the period and a reduction to retained earnings of $4.5 million, net of tax effect, due to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASC 326”).
6


Net Interest Income and Net Interest Margin

The following is a summary of the components of net interest income for the periods indicated:
  Three months ended  
(in thousands) December 31, 2023 September 30, 2023 $ Change % Change
Interest and fee income $46,180  $45,098  $1,082  2.40 %
Interest expense 19,502  17,622  1,880  10.67 %
Net interest income $26,678  $27,476  $(798) (2.90)%
Net interest margin 3.19 % 3.31 %    
         
  Three months ended  
(in thousands) December 31, 2023 December 31, 2022 $ Change % Change
Interest and fee income $46,180 $37,402  $8,778  23.47 %
Interest expense 19,502 8,267  11,235  135.90 %
Net interest income $26,678 $29,135  $(2,457) (8.43)%
Net interest margin 3.19 %3.83 %    
Year ended
(in thousands)December 31, 2023December 31, 2022$ Change% Change
Interest and fee income$174,382 $117,918 $56,464 47.88 %
Interest expense63,502 14,848 48,654 327.68 %
Net interest income$110,880 $103,070 $7,810 7.58 %
Net interest margin3.42 %3.75 %
7


The following table shows the components of net interest income and net interest margin for the quarterly periods indicated:
Three months ended
 
 December 31, 2023 September 30, 2023 December 31, 2022
(in thousands)
 Average Balance Interest Income/ExpenseYield/Rate Average BalanceInterest Income/ExpenseYield/Rate Average BalanceInterest Income/ExpenseYield/Rate
Assets
              
Interest-earning deposits with banks
 $157,775 $2,100 5.28 % $198,751 $2,584 5.16 %$200,395 $1,841 3.64 %
Investment securities
 106,483 651 2.43 % 112,154 653 2.31 %117,364 643 2.17 %
Loans held for investment and sale
 3,055,042 43,429 5.64 % 2,982,140 41,861 5.57 %2,703,865 34,918 5.12 %
Total interest-earning assets
 3,319,300 46,180 5.52 % 3,293,045 45,098 5.43 %3,021,624 37,402 4.91 %
Interest receivable and other assets, net
 80,360  77,757 73,664 
Total assets
 $3,399,660  $3,370,802 $3,095,288 
 
  
Liabilities and shareholders’ equity
  
Interest-bearing demand
 $291,967 $1,091 1.48 % $296,230 $972 1.30 %$223,473 $174 0.31 %
Savings
 130,915 891 2.70 % 134,920 880 2.59 %136,753 247 0.72 %
Money market
 1,347,111 10,824 3.19 % 1,328,290 9,536 2.85 %1,060,597 3,652 1.37 %
Time
 417,434 5,322 5.06 % 399,514 4,998 4.96 %299,771 2,467 3.26 %
Subordinated debt and other borrowings
 88,401 1,374 6.16 % 79,085 1,236 6.20 %114,858 1,727 5.96 %
Total interest-bearing liabilities
 2,275,828 19,502 3.40 % 2,238,039 17,622 3.12 %1,835,452 8,267 1.79 %
Demand accounts
 821,651  825,254 997,815 
Interest payable and other liabilities
 24,886  35,123 17,002 
Shareholders’ equity
 277,295  272,386 245,019 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity
 $3,399,660  $3,370,802 $3,095,288 
 
             
Net interest spread
  2.12 % 2.31 % 3.12 %
Net interest income/margin
  $26,678 3.19 % $27,476 3.31 %$29,135 3.83 %
 

8


Net interest income during the three months ended December 31, 2023 decreased $0.8 million as compared to the three months ended September 30, 2023. In addition, net interest margin decreased 12 basis points compared to the prior quarter. The decrease in net interest income is primarily attributable to an additional $1.7 million in deposit interest expense due to increases in interest rates as compared to the prior quarter. The cost of interest-bearing deposits increased 28 basis points as compared to the prior quarter, while average balances increased 1.32%. In addition, the average balance of non-interest-bearing deposits decreased by $3.6 million quarter-over-quarter. The increase to interest expense was partially offset by an increase in total interest income of $1.1 million. Average loan yields increased 7 basis points as compared to the prior quarter, while average balances increased 2.44%.
As compared to the three months ended December 31, 2022, net interest income decreased $2.5 million and net interest margin decreased 64 basis points. The decrease in net interest income is primarily attributable to an additional $11.6 million in deposit interest expense due to increases in interest rates and average balances as compared to the same quarter of the prior year. The cost of interest-bearing deposits increased 178 basis points as compared to the same quarter of the prior year, while average balances increased 27.13%. In addition, the average balance of non-interest-bearing deposits decreased by $176.2 million as compared to the same quarter of the prior year. The increase in interest expense was partially offset by an increase in total interest income of $8.8 million, as compared to the same quarter of the prior year. Average loan yields increased 52 basis points as compared to the same quarter of the prior year, while average balances increased 12.99%.
The following table shows the components of net interest income and net interest margin for the annual periods indicated:
Year ended
 
 December 31, 2023 December 31, 2022
(in thousands)
 Average Balance Interest Income/ExpenseYield/Rate Average BalanceInterest Income/Expense Yield/Rate
Assets
          
Interest-earning deposits with banks
 $184,103 $9,069 4.93 %$260,679 $3,696 1.42 %
Investment securities
 113,515 2,600 2.29 %131,353 2,427 1.85 %
Loans held for investment and sale
 2,947,603 162,713 5.52 %2,353,148 111,795 4.75 %
Total interest-earning assets
 3,245,221 174,382 5.37 %2,745,180 117,918 4.30 %
Interest receivable and other assets, net
 75,741 99,946 
Total assets
 $3,320,962 $2,845,126 
 
 
Liabilities and shareholders’ equity
 
Interest-bearing demand
 $312,944 $3,321 1.06 %$242,221 $425 0.18 %
Savings
 140,060 3,073 2.19 %107,010 376 0.35 %
Money market
 1,263,539 33,932 2.69 %995,048 6,476 0.65 %
Time
 372,557 17,535 4.71 %203,392 3,646 1.79 %
Subordinated debt and other borrowings
 93,279 5,641 6.05 %61,533 3,925 6.38 %
Total interest-bearing liabilities
 2,182,379 63,502 2.91 %1,609,204 14,848 0.92 %
Demand accounts
 844,057 982,915 
Interest payable and other liabilities
 27,127 14,709 
Shareholders’ equity
 267,399 238,298 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity
 $3,320,962 $2,845,126 
 
         
Net interest spread
  2.46 % 3.38 %
Net interest income/margin
  $110,880 3.42 %$103,070 3.75 %
9


Net interest income during the year ended December 31, 2023 increased $7.8 million as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. Net interest margin decreased 33 basis points compared to the prior year. The increase in net interest income is primarily attributable to an additional $50.9 million in interest income on loans due to increases in interest rates and average balances as compared to the prior year. The average yield on loans increased 77 basis points as compared to the prior year, while average balances increased 25.26%. The increase to interest income was partially offset by an increase in total interest expense of $48.7 million. The increase in total interest expense is primarily attributable to an additional $46.9 million in deposit interest expense due to increases in interest rates and average balances as compared to the prior year. The cost of interest-bearing deposits increased 206 basis points as compared to the prior year, while average balances increased 34.98%. In addition, the average balance of non-interest-bearing deposits decreased by $138.9 million year-over-year.
Loans by Type
The following table provides loan balances, excluding deferred loan fees, by type as of December 31, 2023:
(in thousands)
Commercial Term Real Estate Non-Owner Occupied $1,161,502 
Commercial Term Multifamily1,018,372
Commercial Term Real Estate Owner Occupied495,480
Commercial Secured87,549
Commercial Construction Real Estate62,863
Commercial Term Agricultural Real Estate51,669
SBA 7A Secured48,289
Others 158,252
Total loans, excluding deferred loan fees
 $3,083,976 
Interest-bearing Deposits
The following table provides interest-bearing deposit balances by type as of December 31, 2023:
(in thousands)
Interest-bearing demand accounts
 $320,356 
Money market accounts
1,282,369 
Savings accounts
126,498 
Time accounts
466,572 
Total interest-bearing deposits
 $2,195,795 
Asset Quality
Allowance for Credit Losses - Loans
Beginning January 1, 2023, the Company adopted ASC 326, which replaced the former “incurred loss” model for recognizing credit losses with an “expected loss” model referred to as the Current Expected Credit Loss (“CECL”) model. Utilizing CECL may have an impact on our allowance for credit losses going forward and result in a lack of comparability between 2022 and 2023 quarterly and annual periods. Refer to information below on the provision for credit losses recorded during the year ended December 31, 2023.
At December 31, 2023, the Company’s allowance for credit losses was $34.4 million, as compared to $28.4 million at December 31, 2022. The $6.0 million increase in the allowance is due to a $5.3 million adjustment recorded in connection with the adoption of CECL and a $4.0 million provision for credit losses recorded during the twelve months ended December 31, 2023, partially offset by net charge-offs of $3.3 million, mainly attributable to commercial and industrial loans, during the same period.
The Company’s ratio of nonperforming loans to loans held for investment increased from 0.01% at December 31, 2022 to 0.06% at December 31, 2023. The provision for credit losses recorded during the year ended December 31, 2023 was primarily related to loan growth, loan type mix, and changes in the macroeconomic environment. Loans designated as substandard increased from $0.4 million to $2.0 million between December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2023. There were no loans with doubtful risk grades at December 31, 2023 or December 31, 2022.
10


A summary of the allowance for credit losses by loan class is as follows:
  December 31, 2023 December 31, 2022
(in thousands)
 Amount % of Total Amount % of Total
Real estate:        
Commercial $29,015  84.27 % $19,216  67.69 %
Commercial land and development 178  0.52 % 54  0.19 %
Commercial construction 718  2.08 % 645  2.27 %
Residential construction 89  0.26 % 49  0.17 %
Residential 151  0.44 % 175  0.62 %
Farmland 399  1.16 % 644  2.27 %
30,550 88.73 %20,783 73.21 %
Commercial:    
Secured 3,314  9.62 % 7,098  25.00 %
Unsecured 189  0.55 % 116  0.41 %
3,503 10.17 %7,214 25.41 %
Consumer and other 378  1.10 % 347  1.22 %
Unallocated —  — % 45  0.16 %
Total allowance for credit losses $34,431  100.00 % $28,389  100.00 %
The ratio of allowance for credit losses to loans held for investment was 1.12% at December 31, 2023, as compared to 1.02% at December 31, 2022.
Non-interest Income
The following table presents the key components of non-interest income for the periods indicated:
  Three months ended  
(in thousands)
 December 31, 2023 September 30, 2023 $ Change% Change
Service charges on deposit accounts $165 $158  $ 4.43 %
Net gain (loss) on sale of securities
 (167)—  (167) — %
Gain on sale of loans 317 396  (79) (19.95)%
Loan-related fees 667 355  312  87.89 %
FHLB stock dividends 314 274  40  14.60 %
Earnings on bank-owned life insurance
 155 127  28  22.05 %
Other income 485 74  411  555.41 %
Total non-interest income $1,936 $1,384 $552  39.88 %
Net gain (loss) on sale of securities. The increase in the net loss on sale of securities related to the sale of two municipal securities with a par value of approximately $0.8 million for a loss of approximately $0.2 million during the three months ended December 31, 2023, with no sales occurring during the three months ended September 30, 2023.
Gain on sale of loans. The decrease related primarily to an overall decline in the volume of loans sold during the three months ended December 31, 2023 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2023. During the three months ended December 31, 2023, approximately $5.9 million of loans were sold with an effective yield of 5.41%, as compared to approximately $7.0 million of loans sold with an effective yield of 5.63% during the three months ended September 30, 2023.
Loan-related fees. The increase resulted primarily in the recognition of $0.1 million of swap referral fees and $0.2 million of rate lock fees during the three months ended December 31, 2023, which did not occur during the three months ended September 30, 2023.
11


Other income. The increase resulted primarily from a $0.4 million gain recorded on distributions received on investments in venture-backed funds during the three months ended December 31, 2023, which did not occur during the three months ended September 30, 2023.
The following table presents the key components of non-interest income for the periods indicated:
  Three months ended  
(in thousands)
 December 31, 2023 December 31, 2022 $ Change% Change
Service charges on deposit accounts $165 $97  $68 70.10 %
Net gain (loss) on sale of securities
 (167)—  (167)— %
Gain on sale of loans 317 637  (320)(50.24)%
Loan-related fees 667 407  260 63.88 %
FHLB stock dividends 314 193  121 62.69 %
Earnings on bank-owned life insurance
 155 119  36 30.25 %
Other income 485 148  337 227.70 %
Total non-interest income $1,936 $1,601 $335  20.92 %
Net gain (loss) on sale of securities. The increase in the net loss on sale of securities related to the sale of two municipal securities with a par value of approximately $0.8 million for a loss of approximately $0.2 million during the three months ended December 31, 2023, with no sales occurring during the three months ended December 31, 2022.
Gain on sale of loans. The decrease resulted from an overall decline in the volume of loans sold during the three months ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the three months ended December 31, 2022. During the three months ended December 31, 2023, approximately $5.9 million of loans were sold with an effective yield of 5.41%, as compared to approximately $14.5 million of loans sold with an effective yield of 4.40% during the three months ended December 31, 2022.
Loan-related fees. The increase resulted from the recognition of $0.1 million of swap referral fees and $0.2 million of rate lock fees during the three months ended December 31, 2023, which did not occur during the three months ended December 31, 2022.
FHLB stock dividends. The increase was primarily due to an increase in yield from dividends received from 7.00% to 8.25% for the three months ended December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2023, respectively, combined with an increase in the average number of shares outstanding of approximately 41,000 when comparing the the three months ended December 31, 2023 to the three months ended December 31, 2022 due to FHLB stock purchases completed in 2023.
Other income. The increase resulted primarily from a $0.4 million gain recorded on distributions received on investments in venture-backed funds during the three months ended December 31, 2023, compared to a $0.1 million gain recorded during the three months ended December 31, 2022.
The following table presents the key components of non-interest income for the periods indicated:
  Year ended  
(in thousands)
 December 31, 2023 December 31, 2022 $ Change% Change
Service charges on deposit accounts $575 $467  $108 23.13 %
Net gain (loss) on sale of securities
 (167) (172)(3,440.00)%
Gain on sale of loans 1,952 2,934  (982)(33.47)%
Loan-related fees 1,719 2,207  (488)(22.11)%
FHLB stock dividends 970 546  424 77.66 %
Earnings on bank-owned life insurance
 510 412  98 23.79 %
Other income 1,952 586  1,366 233.11 %
Total non-interest income $7,511 $7,157 $354  4.95 %
12


Service charges on deposit accounts. The increase related to individually immaterial increases in fees earned for services and products to support deposit accounts including, but not limited to, service charges, wire transfer fees, check order fees, and debit card income.
Net gain (loss) on sale of securities. The increase in the net loss on sale of securities resulted from the sale of two municipal securities with a par value of approximately $0.8 million for a loss of approximately $0.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the sale of approximately $1.6 million of municipal securities, resulting in a gain of $5.0 thousand during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Gain on sale of loans. The decrease related primarily to an overall decline in the volume of loans sold during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. During the year ended December 31, 2023, approximately $36.5 million of loans were sold with an effective yield of 5.35%, as compared to approximately $50.8 million of loans sold with an effective yield of 5.78% during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Loan-related fees. The decrease was primarily a result of: (i) a decrease of $0.6 million in swap referral fees and (ii) a decrease of $0.2 million in loan fee income earned on various loan types and services. These decreases were partially offset by: (i) a $0.2 million increase in rate lock fees earned and (ii) a $0.1 million increase in income earned from the credit card program recognized during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022.
FHLB stock dividends. The increase primarily relates to an increase in the number of FHLB Class B shares held for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 combined with an overall increase in the annualized dividend rates earned year-over-year.
Other income. The increase resulted primarily from a $1.7 million gain recorded on distributions received on investments in venture-backed funds during the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to a $0.4 million gain recognized during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Non-interest Expense
The following table presents the key components of non-interest expense for the periods indicated:
 
 Three months ended  
(in thousands) December 31, 2023September 30, 2023 $ Change% Change
Salaries and employee benefits
 $7,182 $6,876  $306 4.45 %
Occupancy and equipment
 583 561  22 3.92 %
Data processing and software
 1,110 1,020  90 8.82 %
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) insurance
 370 375  (5)(1.33)%
Professional services
 658 700  (42)(6.00)%
Advertising and promotional
 717 535  182 34.02 %
Loan-related expenses
 268 345  (77)(22.32)%
Other operating expenses
 1,775 1,603  172 10.73 %
Total non-interest expense
 $12,663 $12,015  $648  5.39 %
Salaries and employee benefits. The increase was primarily a result of: (i) a $0.3 million increase in salaries, insurance, and benefits, which primarily related to four new employees hired in September 2023 and one new employee hired in December 2023 to support expansion into the San Francisco Bay Area and (ii) a $0.2 million decline in loan origination costs related to lower production. These increases were partially offset by a $0.2 million reduction in the 2023 bonus accrual related to 2023 financial performance which was trued-up during the three months ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the three months ended September 30, 2023.
Advertising and promotional. The increase was primarily due to the timing of events sponsored and attended during the three months ended December 31, 2023 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2023.
Other operating expenses. The increase was primarily due to increased expenses incurred for travel and fees paid for attendance of professional events, conferences, and other business-related events during the three months ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the three months ended September 30, 2023.
13


The following table presents the key components of non-interest expense for the periods indicated:
  Three months ended 
(in thousands) December 31, 2023 December 31, 2022 $ Change% Change
Salaries and employee benefits $7,182 $5,698  $1,484 26.04 %
Occupancy and equipment 583 511  72 14.09 %
Data processing and software 1,110 839  271 32.30 %
FDIC insurance 370 245  125 51.02 %
Professional services 658 553  105 18.99 %
Advertising and promotional 717 568  149 26.23 %
Loan-related expenses 268 358  (90)(25.14)%
Other operating expenses 1,775 1,945  (170)(8.74)%
Total non-interest expense $12,663  $10,717  $1,946 18.16 %
Salaries and employee benefits. The increase was primarily a result of: (i) a $1.1 million increase in salaries, insurance, and benefits, of which approximately $0.7 million related to 10 new employees hired to support expansion into the San Francisco Bay Area, and (ii) a $0.8 million decrease in the allocation of loan origination costs resulting from lower loan production. These increases were partially offset by a $0.4 million decline in commissions expense due to lower production during the three months ended December 31, 2023 compared to the three months ended December 31, 2022.
Data processing and software. The increase was primarily due to: (i) increased usage of our digital banking platform; (ii) higher transaction volumes related to the increased number of loan and deposit accounts; and (iii) an increased number of licenses required for new users on our loan origination and documentation system.
FDIC insurance. The increase related primarily to a final rule adopted by the FDIC to increase initial base deposit insurance assessment rates for insured depository institutions by two basis points, beginning with the first quarterly assessment period of 2023. FDIC insurance also increased for the three months ended December 31, 2023 compared to the three months ended December 31, 2022 due to a $266.4 million increase in the assessment base period-over-period.
Professional services. The increase was primarily due to increased audit, IT support, and other consulting fees for services provided for the three months ended December 31, 2023 compared to the three months ended December 31, 2022.
Advertising and promotional. The increase was primarily due to increases in business development, marketing, and sponsorship expenses incurred during the three months ended December 31, 2023 compared to the three months ended December 31, 2022 related to an increase in the number of Business Development Officers from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2023.
Other operating expenses. The decrease was primarily due to $0.3 million of subordinated debt issuance costs recognized as an other expense upon redemption of the subordinated notes in December 2022, which did not reoccur during the three months ended December 31, 2023. This was partially offset by an increase of $0.1 million for IntraFi Network fees resulting from an overall increase in balances carried in the network.
14


The following table presents the key components of non-interest expense for the periods indicated:
  Year ended 
(in thousands) December 31, 2023 December 31, 2022 $ Change% Change
Salaries and employee benefits $27,097 $22,571  $4,526 20.05 %
Occupancy and equipment 2,218 2,059  159 7.72 %
Data processing and software 4,015 3,091  924 29.89 %
FDIC insurance 1,557 850  707 83.18 %
Professional services 2,575 2,467  108 4.38 %
Advertising and promotional 2,403 1,908  495 25.94 %
Loan-related expenses 1,192 1,287  (95)(7.38)%
Other operating expenses 6,718 6,436  282 4.38 %
Total non-interest expense $47,775  $40,669  $7,106 17.47 %
Salaries and employee benefits. The increase was the result of: (i) a $3.2 million increase in salaries, insurance, and benefits, of which approximately $1.2 million related to 10 new employees hired to support expansion into the San Francisco Bay Area and the remainder of the increase related to increased pay rates and promotions for existing employees; (ii) a $2.7 million decrease in loan origination costs due to lower production; and (iii) a $0.3 million increase in bonus expense due to an increase in the base salaries and number of employees eligible for bonuses in 2023. The increase was partially offset by a $1.8 million decline in commissions expense due to lower production during the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022.
Occupancy and equipment. The increase was the result of a $0.1 million increase in rent expense related to temporary office space to support the San Francisco Bay Area during the second half of 2023 and a new office lease to support back office staff beginning during the fourth quarter of 2023.
Data processing and software. The increase related to: (i) increased usage of our digital banking platform; (ii) higher transaction volumes related to the increased number of loan and deposit accounts; and (iii) an increased number of licenses required for new users on our loan origination and documentation system.
FDIC insurance. The increase related primarily to a final rule adopted by the FDIC to increase initial base deposit insurance assessment rates for insured depository institutions by two basis points, beginning with the first quarterly assessment period of 2023. FDIC insurance also increased for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 due to a $266.4 million increase in the assessment base period-over-period.
Professional services. The increase was due to a $0.5 million increase in audit, IT support, and other consulting fees for services provided for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. This was partially offset by a decline of $0.3 million relating to: (i) $0.2 million of lower legal fees incurred relating to the subordinated debt offering and redemption completed in 2022, which did not reoccur in 2023 and (ii) $0.1 million of lower recruiting fees incurred for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022.
Advertising and promotional. The increase was primarily due to an increased customer base and an increase in the number of Business Development Officers as of December 31, 2023 compared to December 31, 2022.
Other operating expenses. The increase is primarily related to: (i) a $0.3 million increase in IntraFi Network fees resulting from an overall increase in balances carried in the network; (ii) a $0.1 million increase in bank charges due to increased activity; (iii) a $0.1 million increase in insurance expenses; and (iv) a $0.1 million net increase in travel, conferences, memberships, and subscription expenses incurred. These increases were partially offset by $0.3 million of subordinated debt issuance costs recognized as an other expense upon redemption of the subordinated notes in December 2022, which did not reoccur during the year ended December 31, 2023.
15


Provision for Income Taxes
Three months ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the three months ended September 30, 2023
Provision for income taxes for the quarter ended December 31, 2023 decreased by $0.4 million, or 8.38%, to $4.4 million, as compared to $4.8 million for the quarter ended September 30, 2023, which was primarily due to: (i) the decrease in taxable income recognized during the three months ended December 31, 2023 and (ii) a $0.2 million adjustment to the provision recorded during the three months ended September 30, 2023 to true-up the year-to-date effective tax rate, which did not reoccur during the three months ended December 31, 2023. The effective tax rate was 28.72% and 30.07% for the three months ended December 31, 2023 and September 30, 2023, respectively.
Three months ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the three months ended December 31, 2022
Provision for income taxes decreased by $1.1 million, or 20.69%, to $4.4 million for the three months ended December 31, 2023, as compared to $5.5 million for the three months ended December 31, 2022. This decrease is due to the decrease in taxable income for the three months ended December 31, 2023 compared to the three months ended December 31, 2022. The effective tax rate was 28.72% and 29.23% for the three months ended December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. The lower effective tax rate period-over-period related to multi-state tax return filings for the Company since its inception as a C Corporation. The returns were filed during the second quarter of 2023 and reduced the Company’s blended state tax rate.
Year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022
Provision for income taxes increased by $0.8 million, or 4.57%, to $18.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to $18.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase is due to an increase in taxable income, partially offset by a decline in the effective tax rate for each period, from 28.73% to 28.34% for the years ended December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2023, respectively. The lower effective tax rate period-over-period related to multi-state tax return filings for the Company since its inception as a C Corporation. The returns were filed during the second quarter of 2023 and reduced the Company’s blended state tax rate.
Webcast Details
Five Star Bancorp will host a live webcast for analysts and investors on Tuesday, January 30, 2024, at 1:00 p.m. ET (10:00 a.m. PT), to discuss its fourth quarter and annual financial results. To view the live webcast, visit the “News & Events” section of the Company’s website under “Events” at https://investors.fivestarbank.com/news-events/events. The webcast will be archived on the Company’s website for a period of 90 days.
About Five Star Bancorp
Five Star is a bank holding company headquartered in Rancho Cordova, California. Five Star operates through its wholly owned banking subsidiary, Five Star Bank. The Bank has seven branches in Northern California.
Forward-Looking Statements
This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements represent plans, estimates, objectives, goals, guidelines, expectations, intentions, projections, and statements of the Company’s beliefs concerning future events, business plans, objectives, expected operating results, and the assumptions upon which those statements are based. Forward-looking statements include without limitation, any statement that may predict, forecast, indicate, or imply future results, performance, or achievements, and are typically identified with words such as “may,” “could,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “aim,” “intend,” “plan,” or words or phases of similar meaning. The Company cautions that the forward-looking statements are based largely on the Company’s expectations and are subject to a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties that are subject to change based on factors which are, in many instances, beyond the Company’s control. Such forward-looking statements are based on various assumptions (some of which may be beyond the Company’s control) and are subject to risks and uncertainties, which change over time, and other factors, which could cause actual results to differ materially from those currently anticipated. New risks and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for the Company to predict their occurrence or how they will affect the Company. If one or more of the factors affecting the Company’s forward-looking information and statements proves incorrect, then the Company’s actual results, performance, or achievements could differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, forward-looking information and statements contained in this press release. Therefore, the Company cautions you not to place undue reliance on the Company’s forward-looking information and statements. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements are set forth in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 and Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2023, in each case under the section entitled “Risk Factors,” and other documents filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission from time to time.
16


The Company disclaims any duty to revise or update the forward-looking statements, whether written or oral, to reflect actual results or changes in the factors affecting the forward-looking statements, except as specifically required by law.
17


Condensed Financial Data (Unaudited)
 
 Three months ended
(in thousands, except per share and share data)
 December 31, 2023 September 30, 2023 December 31, 2022
Revenue and Expense Data
      
Interest and fee income
 $46,180 $45,098 $37,402 
Interest expense
 19,502 17,622 8,267 
Net interest income
 26,678 27,476 29,135 
Provision for credit losses
 800 1,050 1,250 
Net interest income after provision
 25,878 26,426 27,885 
Non-interest income:
 
Service charges on deposit accounts
 165 158 97 
Net gain (loss) on sale of securities
 (167)— — 
Gain on sale of loans
 317 396 637 
Loan-related fees
 667 355 407 
FHLB stock dividends
 314 274 193 
Earnings on bank-owned life insurance
 155 127 119 
Other income
 485 74 148 
Total non-interest income
 1,936 1,384 1,601 
Non-interest expense:
 
Salaries and employee benefits
 7,182 6,876 5,698 
Occupancy and equipment
 583 561 511 
Data processing and software
 1,110 1,020 839 
FDIC insurance
 370 375 245 
Professional services
 658 700 553 
Advertising and promotional
 717 535 568 
Loan-related expenses
 268 345 358 
Other operating expenses
 1,775 1,603 1,945 
Total non-interest expense
 12,663 12,015 10,717 
Income before provision for income taxes
 15,151 15,795 18,769 
Provision for income taxes
 4,352 4,750 5,487 
Net income
 $10,799 $11,045 $13,282 
 
Comprehensive Income
Net income$10,799 $11,045 $13,282 
Net unrealized holding gain (loss) on securities available-for-sale during the period
5,744 (4,195)3,714 
Reclassification for net (gain) loss on sale of securities included in net income
167 — — 
Less: Income tax expense (benefit) related to other comprehensive income (loss)
1,747 (1,240)1,098 
Other comprehensive income (loss)4,164 (2,955)2,616 
Total comprehensive income$14,963 $8,090 $15,898 
      
18


 
 Three months ended
(in thousands, except per share and share data)
 December 31, 2023 September 30, 2023 December 31, 2022
Share and Per Share Data
      
Earnings per common share:
      
Basic
 $0.63 $0.64 $0.77 
Diluted
 $0.63 $0.64 $0.77 
Book value per share
 $16.56 $15.88 $14.66 
Tangible book value per share(1)
 $16.56 $15.88 $14.66 
Weighted average basic common shares outstanding
 17,175,445 17,175,034 17,143,920 
Weighted average diluted common shares outstanding
 17,193,114 17,194,825 17,179,863 
Shares outstanding at end of period
 17,256,989 17,257,357 17,241,926 
 
      
Credit Quality
      
Allowance for credit losses to period end nonperforming loans
 1,752.70 %1,699.35 %7,026.98 %
Nonperforming loans to loans held for investment
 0.06 %0.07 %0.01 %
Nonperforming assets to total assets
 0.05 %0.06 %0.01 %
Nonperforming loans plus performing loan modifications to loans held for investment
 0.06 %0.07 %0.01 %
 
      
Selected Financial Ratios
      
ROAA
 1.26 %1.30 %1.70 %
ROAE
 15.45 %16.09 %21.50 %
Net interest margin
 3.19 %3.31 %3.83 %
Loan to deposit
 102.19 %99.57 %100.67 %
 
(1) See the section entitled “Non-GAAP Reconciliation (Unaudited)” for a reconciliation of this non-GAAP financial measure.

19


 
 Year ended
(in thousands, except per share and share data) December 31, 2023 December 31, 2022
Revenue and Expense Data
    
Interest and fee income
 $174,382 $117,918 
Interest expense
 63,502 14,848 
Net interest income
 110,880 103,070 
Provision for credit losses
 4,000 6,700 
Net interest income after provision
 106,880 96,370 
Non-interest income:
 
Service charges on deposit accounts
 575 467 
Net gain (loss) on sale of securities
 (167)
Gain on sale of loans
 1,952 2,934 
Loan-related fees
 1,719 2,207 
FHLB stock dividends
 970 546 
Earnings on bank-owned life insurance
 510 412 
Other income
 1,952 586 
Total non-interest income
 7,511 7,157 
Non-interest expense:
 
Salaries and employee benefits
 27,097 22,571 
Occupancy and equipment
 2,218 2,059 
Data processing and software
 4,015 3,091 
FDIC insurance
 1,557 850 
Professional services
 2,575 2,467 
Advertising and promotional
 2,403 1,908 
Loan-related expenses
 1,192 1,287 
Other operating expenses
 6,718 6,436 
Total non-interest expense
 47,775 40,669 
Income before provision for income taxes
 66,616 62,858 
Provision for income taxes
 18,882 18,057 
Net income
 $47,734 $44,801 
 
Comprehensive Income
Net income$47,734 $44,801 
Net unrealized holding gain (loss) on securities available-for-sale during the period
2,228 (18,291)
Reclassification for net (gain) loss on sale of securities included in net income167 (5)
Less: Income tax expense (benefit) related to other comprehensive income (loss)
708 (5,408)
Other comprehensive income (loss)
1,687 (12,888)
Total comprehensive income$49,421 $31,913 
    
Share and Per Share Data
    
Earnings per common share:
    
Basic
 $2.78 $2.61 
Diluted
 $2.78 $2.61 
Book value per share
 $16.56 $14.66 
Tangible book value per share(1)
 $16.56 $14.66 
Weighted average basic common shares outstanding
 17,166,592 17,128,282 
Weighted average diluted common shares outstanding
 17,187,969 17,165,610 
Shares outstanding at end of period
 17,256,989 17,241,926 
 
    
20


 
 Year ended
(in thousands, except per share and share data) December 31, 2023 December 31, 2022
Credit Quality
    
Allowance for credit losses to period end nonperforming loans
 1,752.70 %7,026.98 %
Nonperforming loans to loans held for investment
 0.06 %0.01 %
Nonperforming assets to total assets
 0.05 %0.01 %
Nonperforming loans plus performing loan modifications to loans held for investment
 0.06 %0.01 %
 
    
Selected Financial Ratios
    
ROAA
 1.44 %1.57 %
ROAE
 17.85 %18.80 %
Net interest margin
 3.42 %3.75 %
Loan to deposit
 102.19 %100.67 %
 
(1) See the section entitled “Non-GAAP Reconciliation (Unaudited)” for a reconciliation of this non-GAAP financial measure.
21


(in thousands)
 December 31, 2023 September 30, 2023 December 31, 2022
Balance Sheet Data
      
Cash and due from financial institutions
 $26,986 $26,744 $32,561 
Interest-bearing deposits in banks
 294,590 296,804 227,430 
Time deposits in banks
 5,858 6,971 9,849 
Securities - available-for-sale, at fair value
 108,083 104,086 115,988 
Securities - held-to-maturity, at amortized cost
 3,077 3,104 3,756 
Loans held for sale
 11,464 9,326 9,416 
Loans held for investment
 3,081,719 3,009,930 2,791,326 
Allowance for credit losses - loans
 (34,431)(34,028)(28,389)
Loans held for investment, net of allowance for credit losses
 3,047,288 2,975,902 2,762,937 
FHLB stock
 15,000 15,000 10,890 
Operating leases, right-of-use asset5,284 4,799 3,981 
Premises and equipment, net
 1,623 1,564 1,605 
Bank-owned life insurance
 17,180 17,023 14,669 
Interest receivable and other assets
 56,692 43,717 34,077 
Total assets
 $3,593,125 $3,505,040 $3,227,159 
 
      
Non-interest-bearing deposits
 $831,101 $833,434 $971,246 
Interest-bearing deposits
 2,195,795 2,198,776 1,810,758 
Total deposits
 3,026,896 3,032,210 2,782,004 
Subordinated notes, net
 73,749 73,713 73,606 
FHLB advances170,000 90,000 100,000 
Operating lease liability
5,603 5,043 4,243 
Interest payable and other liabilities
 31,103 30,050 14,481 
Total liabilities
 3,307,351 3,231,016 2,974,334 
 
     
Common stock
 220,505 220,266 219,543 
Retained earnings
 77,036 69,689 46,736 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net
 (11,767)